This is a simple DIY tutorial video of another amazing paper craft. Valorisation des sous-produits du palmier dattier en vue de leur utilisation en alimentation du bétail. In Pakistan, a viscous, thick syrup made from the ripe fruits is used as a coating for leather bags and pipes to prevent leaking. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes, from tajines (tagines) in Morocco to puddings, ka'ak(types of Arab cookies) and other dessert items. It has unique biological and developmental characteristics that necessitate special propagation, culture, and management techniques. Young date leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, as is the terminal bud or heart, though its removal kills the palm. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. They are used traditionally as a complementary feeding source by oasis dwellers (Medjekal et al., 2011). The tree has a widespread of up to 12 ft. (4 m). The total annual world production of dates amounts to 8.5 million metric tons, countries of the Middle East and North Africa being the largest producers.[9]. FAO plant production and protection paper, 156 rev.1. Date Palm Palm Dates. Dates grow large, up to 120 feet (36 m.) and can live for 100 years. Three main cultivar groups of date exist: soft (e.g. 7 16 0. Date palms can take 4 to 8 years after planting before they will bear fruit, and start producing viable yields for commercial harvest between 7 and 10 years. Under cultivation the female flowers are artificially pollinated. 211-215, Khorchani, T. ; Hammadi, M. ; El-Jani, H. ; Genin, D. ; Sakkal, K. ; Abdouli, H., 2004. Canary Island Date palms or majesty palms can suffer from any one of the offenders mentioned above. Study of chemical treatment effect on chemical composition and, Khan, A. J. ; Azam, K. M. ; Razvi, S. A., 2001. Apparent in vivo DM, NDF and ADF digestibilities of this diet were only 39, 33 and 25%, respectively, explaining the low animal performance. Some growers do not even maintain any male plants, as male flowers become available at local markets at pollination time. The discarded pedicels are then used in animal feeding in the same manner as straw (Arbouche et al., 2008). But date palm leaves could be a viable alternative economically because of their low price and widespread availability, though the costs of the other supplements may outweigh the benefit of palm leaves (Narendran et al., 1986a; Narendran et al., 1986b). [11] The fruit is known as a date. "Date Palm". The protein content of the leaves varies seasonally: in Saudi Arabia, protein values for two date palm varieties were found to fluctuate between 8.5-9.5% DM in November-December and 7.5-8.0% DM in June-July (Bacha et al., 1993). Nutr. [4][5][6] P. dactylifera is the type species of genus Phoenix, which contains 12–19 species of wild date palms, and is the major source of commercial production. When Muslims break fast in the evening meal of Ramadan, it is traditional to eat a date first. Al-Yousef et al., 1993; Genin et al., 2004, Arbouche et al., 2008; Chehma et al., 2001, Heuzé V., Tran G., Delagarde R., 2015. Anim. v. sheath: New date palm leaves come out from a tender cover tissue which upon growth of the leaf remains at its base attached to its lateral edges, and surrounding the trunk of the palm. Methyl Bromide. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Mehrgarh around 7000 BCE, a Neolithic civilization in what is now western Pakistan,[14] and in eastern Arabia between 5530 and 5320 calBC. The date palm is dioecious, having separate male and female plants. Nine of these survived and in 1935, cultivars were transferred to the "U.S. for the leaf-end of date palm with a weight of 7.5 kg, more . The rest of the leaf usually remains green. Given that 1.15 million ha were planted with palm trees in 2009 (FAO, 2011) and assuming an average density of 100-125 trees/ha, it is estimated that 1.9-2.4 million tons of dry fronds are available each year (Genin et al., 2004; Klein et al., 2002). Senegal date palm is a slow grower that likes regular watering but tolerates dry periods. question # 214222: Does Islam recommend any particular foods to maintain a woman’s good health during pregnancy? Many Jewish scholars believe that the "honey" reference in the Bible to "a land flowing with milk and honey" (Exodus chapter 3) is actually a reference to date "honey", and not honey from bees.[49]. Removing the coarse midrib and the frond base has been recommended (Bahman et al., 1997). FAOSTAT. Dates are mentioned more than 50 times in the Bible and 20 times in the Qur'an. [13], Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. Feeding lactating dairy cows with NaOH-treated and ensiled date palm leaves at 30 or 40% of the diet (based on wheat offals, poultry manure and a concentrate) resulted in lower milk yields than when the cows were fed alfalfa hay and concentrate. From shop LilyandGraceAdult. Pesticide residue analysis of date palm fruits by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry. Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Date pedicels can be found at farm level and on processing sites, where they may be of environmental concern if not used as feed. 'Dayri', 'Deglet Nour', 'Zahdi'), and dry (e.g. Date by-products from south-east Algeria: effects of treatment with urea and the mode of storage on their chemical composition and digestibility. Date palms require well-drained deep sandy loam soils with a pH of 8-11 (i.e., alkali). Proceeding of The Second Symposium on The Date Palm. Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height,[7] growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. In goats, the voluntary intake of date palm leaflets was higher than that of the whole frond (leaflets + rachis) (70 vs. 53 g/kg W0.75/d), though there was no significant difference in DM digestibility or digestible energy (Pascual et al., 2000). King Faisal University, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. on Date Palms. Date fruits are oval-cylindrical, 3–7 cm (1.2–2.8 in) long, and 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) diameter, and when ripe, range from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. They are used traditionally as a complementary feeding source by oasis dwellers (Medjekal et al., 2011). Ren. Date Palm Palm Dates. The leaves are also used as a lulav in the Jewish holiday of Sukkot. Pygmy date palms (Phoenix roebelenii) are slow-growing palms that are hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11. Proceeding of The Third Symposium on The Date Palm. It has made the invasive species list in some parts of the United States, Canada and Australia[35][36][37] but these references are to the related but inedible Canary Island Date Palm (Phoenix canariensis). Phoenix dactylifera held great significance in early Judaism and subsequently in Christianity, in part because the tree was heavily cultivated as a food source in ancient Palestine. The date palm tree leaves are 3 to 5 m long, with spines on the petiole, and pinnate, with about 150 leaflets; the leaflets are 30 cm long and 2 cm wide. Recently the floral stalks have been found to be of ornamental value in households.[48]. The leaves have visible spines. Energ. There are also differences in feeding value between whole leaves or those with the midrib and petioles removed. March 1986, VOL II, 221-233, Narendran, R. ; Sohail, M. A. ; Al Mustafa, A. I. ; Humaydan, M. S., 1986. The tree is between 15 and 25 metres (49 and 82 feet) high. Nutritive value of date palm leaves and, Bacha, M. A. ; El-Shamy, H. A. ; Nasr, T. A., 1993. Conf. Crude fibre digestibility (49%) was similar to that of the leaves (Chehma et al., 2001). Kor. Date pedicels have a low protein content that decreases over time. The performance of dairy cows offered drinking water of low or high salinity in a hot arid climate. Leaf sheaths are prized for their scent, and fibre from them is also used for rope, coarse cloth, and large hats. The date palm tree is a tall and evergreen tree that has no branches. A., 2006. The oil contains lauric acid (36%) and oleic acid (41%). Traditionally the female flowers are the most available for sale and weigh 300–400 grams (11–14 oz). [3] The species is widely cultivated across Northern Africa, the Middle East, the Horn of Africa and South Asia, and is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. While some dates are sold branched (on the pedicels), others are sold after removal of the branches. It belongs to the palm family. Their oil is suitable for use in cosmetics and dermatological applications. Date pedicels are the small stems attaching the fruits to the main stalk of the bunch. Tree Trees Palm Dates. Date palms appear in the archaeological record in North Africa about 2,800 years ago, suggesting that the hybrid was spread by the Minoans or Phoenicians.[22]. Apart from P. dactylifera, wild date palms such as Phoenix sylvestris and Phoenix reclinata, depending on the region, can be also tapped for sap. The soil should have the ability to hold the moisture. This is just asking for a fungal disease. Dates and sardines as potential animal feed resources. [42] These have generally been replaced by an inexpensive pale-colored knobbled plastic fork that resembles a date branch (example[43]), which is traditionally included with numerous brands of prepackaged trays of dates (example), though this practice has declined in response to increased use of resealable packaging and calls for fewer single-use plastics. In Islamic culture, dates and yogurt or milk are traditionally the first foods consumed for Iftar after the sun has set during Ramadan. The ancient Egyptians used the fruits to make date wine, and ate them at harvest. Feed, 17 (6): 336-341, Mahgoub, O. ; Kadim, I. T. ; Al-Busaidi, M. H. ; Annamalai, K. ; Al-Saqri, N. M., 2007. Leaves of date palm are often found to be clotted over with thin, minute, greyish scales with darker centres (Figures 117a and b). II-Characteristics and digestibility of DPBP-based silages. The replacement of barley straw by date palm leaves (4 kg DM/d) has no effect on milk yield (15 kg/d) and total daily DM intake (16.8 kg DM) (Bahman et al., 1997). Nutrition and feeding strategies of sheep and goats under harsh climates (Stratégies de nutrition et d'alimentation des ovins et caprins en climats rigoureux), Zaragoza : CIHEAM-IAMZ, 2004: 227-232, Glasner, B. Date Garden" in Indio, California. [44] The glycemic index for three different varieties of dates are 35.5 (khalas), 49.7 (barhi), and 30.5 (bo ma'an). Moreover, the crude fibre is not very digestible (45-50%; Chehma et al., 2001), which explains the generally low DM and OM digestibilities of these by-products. Leaflets will usually have areas of necrosis (dead tissue) along their margins and tips. I-Potentialities and traditional utilisation. [17] The date palm was a popular garden plant in Roman peristyle gardens, though it would not bear fruit in the more temperate climate of Italy. A date palm cultivar, probably what used to be called Judean date palm, is renowned for its long-lived orthodox seed, which successfully sprouted after accidental storage for 2000 years. In Israel date syrup, termed silan, is used while cooking chicken and also for sweets and desserts, and as a honey substitute. [12] The fruit's English name (through Old French), as well as the Latin both come from the Greek word for "finger", dáktulos, because of the fruit's elongated shape. Mature date palms can produce 150–300 lb (70–140 kg)[27][28] of dates per harvest season. [20] The upper survival time limit of properly stored seeds remains unknown. They are believed to have originated around what is now Iraq. Estimation du tonnage et valeur alimentaire des sous-produits du palmier dattier chez les ovins. will be pruned. in a remote region of Nevada. In lactating dairy cows fed on high-concentrate diets, date palm leaves can be used instead of cereal straw as a buffer to prevent acidosis. In: Ben Salem, H., Nefzaoui A., Morand-Fehr, P. (eds). Mature leaves are also made into mats, screens, baskets and fans. Date palm crop residues are all low-protein, high fibre by-products, mostly suitable for ruminants as a source of fibre. 18 10 3. Dates are fumigated to kill insects, often with methyl bromide (CH3Br) (Glasner et al., 2002). To obtain fruit of marketable quality, the bunches of dates must be thinned and bagged or covered before ripening so that the remaining fruits grow larger and are protected from weather and animals, such as birds, that also like to eat them. Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants. The scientific name for the date palm tree is Phoenix dactylifera. 20 17 2. An architect and former UAE resident is spreading the word about using date palm leaves in construction. The full span of the crown ranges from 6–10 m (20–33 ft). The crude protein concentration of date fronds is usually low, about 5-7% DM (Arhab et al., 2006; Genin et al., 2004; Medjekal et al., 2011; El-Hag et al., 1992), though higher figures have been reported (10.6 and 16.5% DM; Al-Yousef et al., 1993 and Ziaei et al., 2009). In sheep, voluntary DM intake and in vivo DM digestibility of dried date palm leaves given as the sole feed were 44g DM/kg W0.75/d and 38% respectively (Chehma et al., 2001). Not only are the fruit used for a variety of culinary purposes, but the leaves have also been used to weave baskets. Date palm leaf waste was collected from agricultural farm areas and dried in sunlight in an open place so as to lower the moisture level to 10–15%, which is measured by dielectric meter. [citation needed]. Sheep fed date pedicels ate less DM (26 g/kg W0.75/d) than those fed palm leaves but in vivo DM digestibility of the date pedicels was higher (48%) than for palm leaves. Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. In organic date palm production, carbon dioxide is used instead of methyl bromide (Glasner et al., 2002). Journal Algérien des Régions Arides, 1, Chehma, A. ; Longo, H. F., 2004. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. The date palm grows about 23 metres (75 feet) tall. A major palm pest, the red palm beetle (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) currently poses a significant threat to date production in parts of the Middle East as well as to iconic landscape specimens throughout the Mediterranean world. [16], In Ancient Rome the palm fronds used in triumphal processions to symbolize victory were most likely those of Phoenix dactylifera. Name – Phoenix roebelenii Family – Arecaceae Type – indoor plant. King Faisal University, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Your Pygmy palm's growth cycle will naturally result in yellowing leaves as the tree's older leaves are replaced by new, green fronds. Date pedicels are similar to straw and should be used in the same way in ruminants (Arbouche et al., 2008). Instead, water the palm at the base, either manually or using an irrigation system, and at a time of day that will allow the palm … The date palm trees can be found growing in the Middle East, the Canary Islands, South Africa, India, and California. When 4 kg of senescent date palm leaves were offered daily to dairy cows during a 196-day study, voluntary intake of the leaves ranged from 2 to 3 kg DM according to season (Bahman et al., 1993). The soil should also be free from calcium carbonate.[29]. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes, from tajines (tagines) in Morocco to puddings, ka'ak (types of Arab cookies) and other dessert items. Proceeding of The Third Symposium on The Date Palm. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. The type of fruit depends on the glucose, fructose, and sucrose content. Dates were introduced into Mexico and California by the Spaniards in 1765, around Mission San Ignacio. Historically, Palm leaves were used as one of the original materials for manuscripts and had been found dating back to the 5th century in parts of Southeast Asia. Effect of feeding date palm leaf silage on the milking performance of holstein dairy cows. [41] Some designs were patented. However, urea-treated ensiled date palm fronds, supplemented by a concentrate made of local by-products, was shown to support only the maintenance requirements of growing sheep and very low weight gain over 120 days (Mahgoub et al., 2007). There is a long tradition of using cull dates and date pits to feed animals, and the crop residues serve as raw materials to create household items, furniture and building materials (El-Mously, 2001). The date leaves stalk or spine is long and slender but is strong and can stand the weight of several men. Its stem, strongly marked with the pruned stubs of old leaf bases, terminates in a crown of graceful, shining, pinnate leaves about 5 metres (16 feet) long. But some pests or diseases do affect palm trees differently. Like straw, palm leaves can be treated with urea to improve their nutritive value. In the past, sticky dates were served using specialized small forks having two metal tines (example[40]), called daddelgaffel in Scandinavia. Floral spikes branch from the axils of leaves that emerged the previous year. group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Spain near the African continent Nutrition and feeding strategies of sheep and goats under harsh climates (Stratégies de nutrition et d'alimentation des ovins et caprins en climats rigoureux). It is possible to make leaf silage after chopping the fronds and mixing them with urea, or with urea and a carbohydrate-rich material such as molasses, citrus pulp or beet pulp (Ziaei et al., 2009). [18] It is recognizable in frescoes from Pompeii and elsewhere in Italy, including a garden scene from the House of the Wedding of Alexander.[19]. Cahiers Agricultures, 13 (2): 221-226, Mars-Avril 2004, Étude originale, Codex Alimentarius, 2011. In North Africa, they are commonly used for making huts. 17 22 5. The date palm is a diploid, perennial, dioecious, and monocotyledonous plant adapted to arid environments. Typical symptoms are translucent yellow to orange spots that may be accompanied by black or necrotic spotting. The date palm is a tree. March 25-27, 2001, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates Univ., pp. Most commercial plantations thus use cuttings of heavily cropping cultivars. Dried leaf petioles are a source of cellulose pulp, used for walking sticks, brooms, fishing floats and fuel. Seasonal changes of macro-nutrients in the folialge of date palm. In the Bible palm trees are referenced as symbols of prosperity and triumph. Palm branches occurred as iconography in sculpture ornamenting the Second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, on Jewish coins, and in the sculpture of synagogues. The nutritive value of date palm crop residues has been extensively studied due to their widespread availability in the countries where date production is important. On the ot her hand, wit h the simil ar amount . They are used as roof rafters, grids, fences, flooring for small huts, fishing rod, simple furniture, crates, and burned for fuel or converted into charcoal. Fossil records show that the date palm has existed for at least 50 million years. Prod., 57 (1): 23-28, Bahman, A. M. ; Topps, J. H. ; Rooke, J. In the Quran, Allah instructs Maryām (the Virgin Mary) to eat dates when she gives birth to Isa (Jesus);[50] and, similarly, they are recommended to pregnant women.[51]. 'Thoory'). Palm-leaf manuscripts are manuscripts made out of dried palm leaves. Pitted dates are also referred to as stoned dates. However, with assistance, one male can pollinate up to 100 females. 3.3 Amazing Uses from Date Palm Trunk and Leaves Date Leaves Stalk. fertile gardens, about 440000 tons of the date palm leaves . Dates provide a wide range of essential nutrients, and are a very good source of dietary potassium. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Arabia from the 6th millennium BCE. Valorisation of date-palm by-products (DPBP) for livestock feeding in Southern Tunisia. Select from premium Date Palm Leaves of the highest quality. Date fruits (dates) are oval-cylindrical, 3 to 7 centimetres (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, and about 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) in diameter, ranging from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. Date palm with fruits at the Abdul Aziz Date Farm in Medina. 2nd Inter. The leaves were chopped into smaller length segments, and further cut into pieces ranging in size from approximately 0.63–4.0 mm in a shredder machine. Dates (especially Medjool and Deglet Nour) are also cultivated in America in southern California, Arizona and southern Florida in the United States and in Sonora and Baja California in Mexico. 35 34 4. Date palm leaves contain high levels of phenols and condensed tannins (Arhab et al., 2006). January 1993 (Rajab,1413) Vol. Vinegar made from dates was a traditional product of the Middle East. B. ; Botes, A. ; Zaid, A. ; Emmens, J., 2002. Date nut bread, a type of cake, is very popular in the United States, especially around holidays. it's me again G and welcome to my channel. Date palm cultivation. They are also used as ornamentation in the Feast of the Tabernacles. Pesticides residues in Food and feed. The maximum residue level for methyl bromide on dried fruits was set at 2 mg/kg by the Codex Alimentarius (Codex Alimentarius, 2011). Pedicels are more or less comparable to fronds, but actual results depend probably on the precise nature of the materials offered to (and eaten by) the animals. Dates are an important traditional crop in Iraq, Iran, Arabia, and north Africa west to Morocco. Dates contain a single stone about 2–2.5 cm (0.8–1.0 in) long and 6–8 mm (0.2–0.3 in) thick. Pedicels can thus be used in the same manner as straw (Arbouche et al., 2008). 12 15 2. At about 61-68 percent sugar by mass when dried, dates are a very sweet fruit. FAO, Rome, Lee, N. H. ; Kim, C. W. ; Song, K. S. ; Kim, H. M. ; Park, B. S. ; Yoon, C. S. ; Han, C. K. ; Sohail, M. A., 1993. Zones 10-11 Date palm cultivation. Date palm leaves are used for Palm Sunday in the Christian religion. [46], Date seeds are soaked and ground up for animal feed. With the release of this improved genome assembly, the UAE researchers were able to map genes for fruit color and sugar content. Nutritive value assessment of some desert by-products by gas production and rumen fermentation, Narendran, R. ; Sohail, M. A. ; Al Mustafa, A. I. ; Humaydan, M. S., 1986. Symptoms of potassium deficiency appear first on the oldest leaves, with the tips turning orange. Effect of feeding date palm leaf silage to Holstein cows on their performance. Pedicels chopped to 2-5 cm length and treated with urea have a higher nitrogen content (stable during storage) and a higher nutritive value. Effect of feeding date palm leaf silage to Holstein cows on their performance. Effects of feeding ensiled date palm fronds and a by-product concentrate on performance and meat quality of Omani sheep. The connective tissue has gone and a brownish fibrous sheath is left which, when pruning the leaves, can be torn loose and is known under the name of leef. 22 24 3. In vitro gas production of dried palm leaves is lower than that of barley straw, with a longer latency time, indicating a low DM degradability (high fibre and low protein) (Medjekal et al., 2011). [38][39] Recent innovations include chocolate-covered dates and products such as sparkling date juice, used in some Islamic countries as a non-alcoholic version of champagne, for special occasions and religious times such as Ramadan. INC, International Nut and Dried Fruit Council Foundation,, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2013, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles needing additional references from November 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Sinhala-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 12:23. [47], Stripped fruit clusters are used as brooms. Date palm seeds contain 0.56–5.4% lauric acid. What if I see brown leaves on my canary palm or majesty palm? Date palm leaves and date pedicels. Date palm leaves can be harvested at senescence and chopped to 2-5 cm length before being fed to animals (Arhab et al., 2006). Not eligible for returns or cancellations.
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