Direct measures of the software include how many lines of code (LOC) produced, execution speed, memory size, and defects reported. Effort variance = (Actual Effort – Planned Effort)/ Planned Effort x 100. Time and effort to complete each generic activity. Software metrics. Process metrics can be used to improve software development and maintenance. We’ll now take a closer look at the various types of the two most important categories of metrics – Project Metrics, and Process Metrics. The metric should satisfy the engineer’s intuitive notions about the product attribute under consideration Once you have identified useful metrics, assess your organization to see whether it is capable of providing useful information for the measurement ! RSI = 1- ((Number of changed + Number of deleted + Number of added) / Total number of initial requirements) x100. Measurement is used to establish a process baseline from which improvements can be assessed. Difference between size oriented metrics and function oriented metrics : * Size oriented metrics deals with direct measure of the output and quality whereas Function oriented metrics deals with indirect measure of the output and quality. Identify roadblocks, root causes, inefficiencies, and other opportunities for improving product quality and process performance. Thousand lines of code (KLOC) are often chosen as the normalization value. It should be relatively easy to learn how to derive the metric, and its computation should not demand inordinate effort or time. Residual defect density = (total number of defects found by a customer)/ (Total number of defects including customer found defects) x 100. In software development process, a working product is developed at the end of each successful phase. Productivity (defect fixation) = actual no of defects fixed/ actual effort spent on defect fixation. Project managers have a wide variety of metrics to choose from. Direct measure and indirect measure. Empirically and intuitively persuasive. Schedule variance for a phase: The deviation between planned and actual schedules for the phases within a project. I also have done MBA from MICA. 1. More consistent product quality. OurEducation is an Established trademark in Rating, Ranking and Reviewing Top 10 Education Institutes, Schools, Test Series, Courses, Coaching Institutes, and Colleges. Customer Problems 4. Basic quality and productivity data are collected. But there is a huge difference in between software and program in technical language. 2. Mean Time to Failure 2. 4) How can we measure the effectiveness of a Process? Cost of quality = (review + testing + verification review + verification testing + QA + configuration management + measurement + training + rework review + rework testing)/ total effort x 100. They measure defects, cost, schedule, productivity and estimation of various project resources and deliverables. 3. The data can also be used to pinpoint problem areas. Identify areas of improvement 3. Cost of quality: It is a measure of the performance of quality initiatives in an organization. Project managers have a wide variety of metrics to choose from. Simplilearn is one of the world’s leading providers of online training for Digital Marketing, Cloud Computing, Project Management, Data Science, IT, Software Development, and many other emerging technologies. Schedule. There are two types of measurement in software engineering process. Simple and computable. Measures, Metrics, and Indicators An indicator is a metric or combination of metrics that provide insight into the software process, a software project, or the product itself. Product metrics are combined across several projects to produce process metrics. Metrics for the product: Furthermore, Complexity of the Design Model is classified as-, 6) What are the attributes of a software metrics? 4. In a later section of this article, “Putting it all together,” you’ll see why. Subscribe to our YouTube Channel & Be a Part of 400k+ Happy Learners Community. Improved maintenance practices. Penalize well-designed but short programs. 4. Function oriented (function point approach): Function-oriented metrics use a measure of the functionality delivered by the application as a normalization value. Maintenance practices also improve when the right KPIs are tracked. Software metrics Advance Computer Architecture (ACA): https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLz8TdOA7NTzSOHaom_1AGQNrVeAzI3GIM Analysis … Basically one distinguishes between product metrics and process metrics. Establish baselines for comparisons with future assessments. An effective mechanism for quality feedback. The intent is to provide a set of process indicators that lead to long-term software process improvement. An indicator provides insight that enables the project manager or software engineers to adjust the process, the project, or the process to make things better. Metrics are developed for these products so that they can indicate whether a product is developed according to the user requirements. Schedule variance = ((Actual calendar days – Planned calendar days) + Start variance)/ Planned calendar days x 100. 1. Analyze information domain of the application and develop counts. In addition to the basic metrics and reports, many other reports are useful for in-process quality management. These are metrics that relate to Project Quality. Product metrics describe the characteristics of the product such as size, complexity, design features, performance, and quality level. Reduce costsThese goals ca… Software Test Metrics: Before starting what is Software Test Metrics and types, I would like to start with the famous quotes in terms of metrics. What is it?Software process and product metrics are quantitative measures that enable software peopleto gain insight into the efficacy of the software process and the projects that are conductedusing the process as a framework.• Who does it?Software metrics are analyzed and assessed by software managers. 5. Placement Criteria for Alstom Ltd, interview question and answers for freshersQuality ManagementSoftware Metricssoftware project managementSoftware Testing Tools. Manage workloads 4. What metrics are essential for a project’s success? I Have done Journalism in Print Media. Defect density: It is the number of defects detected in the software during development divided by the size of the software (typically in KLOC or FP), Defect density for a project = Total number of defects/ project size in KLOC or FP. 7) Explain Normalization for Metrics. Review efficiency: defined as the efficiency in harnessing/ detecting review defects in the verification stage. Assess the influence of global factors that affect the application. Metrics are expected to exhibit certain behavior. Ans. Depend on the size and complexity of the project. To measure MTTF, we can evidence the failure da… I belong to Amritsar, Punjab. Prepare yourselves for the biggest … Number of developers and testers. Basic quality and productivity data are collected. There is much confusion between terms “metrics” and “key performance indicators” – “KPIs” in the context of software engineering. These metrics measure the impact of organizational economics, employee satisfaction, communication, and organizational growth factors of the project. Here is a simple example - weight and height of a person are measures and Body Mass Index, which is a function of height and weight, is a metric. Develop a set of meaningful metrics based on these attributes. Here are nine objective metrics (marked by bullet points) that you should monitor continuously, to make incremental improvements to processes and production environments. This article is very good in explaining software metrics and also some processes involves in this. Effort variance for a phase = (Actual effort for a phase – a planned effort for a phase)/ (planned effort for a phase) x 100. This type measures the quality of the software product delivered to the client. Software metrics help people to develop better project estimates, produce higher-quality systems, and get products out the door on time. Ans: Importance of software Metrics: 10) How can we compute FP? This article contained complete information regarding software process and product metrics. Software Development Life Cycle Model Size oriented (lines of code approach): Derived by normalizing quality and/or productivity measures by considering the size of the software produced. Have a look on this article .it is very interesting which is about A software development process, also known as a software development life-cycle (SDLC), is a structure imposed on the development of a software product. In the process of software development, sometimes, you will find an instant change in the previously planned schedule. Require a level of detail that may be difficult to achieve, (function point approach): Function-oriented metrics use a measure of the functionality delivered by the application as a normalization value. Are dependent on the programming language. Project metrics: It describes the project team’s ability to perform the project execution examples. Ans: Normalization approaches: 1. Productivity (Project): Is a measure of output from a related process for a unit of input. Ans: Software Process and Product Metrics are quantitative measures of-They are a management tool. Time to fix the defect I am planning to do MBA after finishing my Engineering in Foreign Trade. , 2006). Most software developers do not measure, and most have little desire to begin. Establish count for input domain and system. Jan 12 • Resources • 12541 Views • 7 Comments on Software Process and Product Metrics, 1) What are metrics? These metrics enable management to understand the quality of the software, the productivity of the development team, code complexity, customer satisfaction, agile process, and operational metrics. Right now I am in Bengaluru doing my B.E course in second year. Gain an understanding of processes, products, resources, and environments. The ability of team to control quality is evaluated. 4. They offer insight into the effectiveness of the software process and the projects that are conducted using the process as a framework. Google Ads Says Goodbye to Average Position and Hello to Impression Rate Metrics, Roadmap to Crack PMP® Certification Process, Understanding Agile Process: Everything You Need to Know, Big Data Hadoop Certification Training Course, AWS Solutions Architect Certification Training Course, Certified ScrumMaster (CSM) Certification Training, ITIL 4 Foundation Certification Training Course, Data Analytics Certification Training Course, Cloud Architect Certification Training Course, DevOps Engineer Certification Training Course. 1. Metric is a measurement that can classify software or product quality and then process the quality of metrics. You can’t control what you can’t measure – Tom Demacro (an American software engineer, author, and consultant on software engineering topics). The distinction is not always unambiguous since some metrics are used to evaluate both products and processes. Grade significance of external factors, such reuse. That is, the metric should provide a software engineer with information that can lead to a higher quality end product. Check out our course on Introduction to PMP Certification Training. Penalize well-designed but short programs. Establishing a successful company-wide software metrics program can be a multi-year effort.But if we do not measure, there is no real way of determining whether we are improving. On a more granular level, software development managers are trying to: 1. 3. Are dependent on the programming language. There are 2 types of software metrics: Product Metrics: Product metrics are used to evaluate the state of the product, tracing risks and undercovering prospective problem areas. Defect detection percentage. The goal is to determine whether quality and productivity improvements have occurred. A Framework for Managing, Measuring, and Predicting Attributes of Software Development Products and Processes Reflecting the immense progress in the development and use of software metrics in the past decades, Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to software metrics. b) Project Metrics. The goal of software testing metrics is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness in the software testing process and to help make better decisions for further testing process by providing reliable data about the testing process. They are used to quantify defects, cost, schedule, productivity and estimation of various project resources and del… Is it worth it to do it? Increase return on investment (ROI) 2. They offer insight into the effectiveness of the software process and the projects that are conducted using the process as a framework. 2. ... Agile Principles For Metrics In Software Engineering. Defects per KLOC- KLOC per person-month. Consistent and objective. But at least these are the right things to measure. The Lead Time metric measures the difference between the software’s definition of a particular feature and its accessibility to the end-users. Errors per KLOC- Errors per person-month. PMP, PMI, PMBOK, CAPM, PgMP, PfMP, ACP, PBA, RMP, SP, and OPM3 are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON SOFTWARE PROCESS AND PRODUCT METRICS.pdf, interview question and answers for freshers, Best IAS Coaching Institutes in Coimbatore. Schedule variance for a phase = (Actual Calendar days for a phase – Planned calendar days for a phase + Start variance for a phase)/ (Planned calendar days for a phase) x 100. Metrics should be based on the analysis model, the design model, or the structure of the program itself. 1. The mathematical computation of the metric should use measures that do not lead to bizarre combinations of unit. « Interview Questions on JAVA RISC / CISC », © 2020 Our Education | Best Coaching Institutes Colleges Rank | Best Coaching Institutes Colleges Rank, I am Passionate Content Writer. 3. They are used to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of various processes. Productivity. SW Metrics • SW process and product metrics are ... • Metric (IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terms) – A quantitative measure of the degree to which a system, ... minimize the difference between the estimated resources needed to complete a Read on to find out all you need to know about Project & Process Metrics for Project Management. Review efficiency = (number of defects caught in review)/ total number of defects caught) x 100. What are some software development metrics examples? Productivity (defect detection) = Actual number of defects (review + testing) / actual effort spent on (review + testing). Size-oriented metrics are not universally accepted as the best way to measure the software process. Ans: We measure the effectiveness of a process by deriving a set of metrics based on outcomes of the process such as: 5) What is Product Metrics? Process maturity levels: 1.initial, 2.repeatable, 3.defined, 4.managed, 5.optimizing ! They are used to quantify defects, cost, schedule, productivity and estimation of various project resources and deliverables. Defect Density 3. Customer Satisfaction These are metrics that pertain to Process Quality. The metric should always yield results that are unambiguous. Three assumptions (Kitchenham) 1. They are used to measure cost, quality, and the product’s time-to-market. Effort variance for a phase: The deviation between a planned and actual effort for various phases within the project. Use the metrics to provide indicators that will lead to a strategy for improvement. Defect removal efficiency: Quantifies the efficiency with which defects were detected and prevented from reaching the customer. An MTTF of 200 mean that one failure can be expected each 200-time units. A manufacturer that tracks the right metrics will be better at finding and eliminating problems that impact their product quality. Cost of poor quality = rework effort/ total effort x 100. 2. 9) list importance of Software Metrics. Process metrics: It can be used to improve efficiency of an existing process used in software development and maintenance. Ans: It tells us how does an organization combine metrics that come from different individuals or projects. Improvements in these numbers will not guarantee that your customer satisfaction levels will rise by leaps and bounds. These are the metrics pertaining to the Project Quality. Project Metrics - Schedule Variance : Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion is known as Schedule Variance. As adjectives the difference between imperial and metric is that imperial is related to an empire, emperor, or empress while metric is of or relating to the metric system of measurement. Software metrics is a standard of measure that contains many activities which involve some degree of measurement. Software metrics can be classified into three categories: product metrics, process metrics, and project metrics. Defects delivered to and reported by the end users. That means higher production rates with fewer rejects. This article explains about what are importance and approaches of software process and product metrics in a very simple manner. Weight each count by assessing complexity. Size variance = (Actual size – Estimated size)/ Estimated size x 100. Rs per KLOC- Rs per page of documentation. Programming language independent. WANT TO KNOW ABOUT SOFTWARE PEOCESS AND PRODUCT MATRICES, differece between software product and software process. Ans: Process metrics are collected across all projects and over long periods of time. If a product does not meet user requirements, then the necessary actions are taken in the respective phase. Effort Variance: Difference between the planned outlined effort and the effort required to actually undertake the task is called Effort variance. Gain understanding of relationships among processes and products. Errors uncovered before release of the software. Ans: Software Process and Product Metrics are quantitative measures of-, 2) Need for Software Metrics. 2. Defect density. Reduce overtime 5. Following are the needs for the software Metrics- 1) What are metrics? How do you know which parameters are the most appropriate to define and measure the successful completion of a process? Each product can be measured at any stage of its development. 3. To characterize in order to. The time units are entirely dependent on the system & it can even be stated in the number of transactions. These are metrics that relate to Project Quality. Remedies can then be developed and the software process can be improved. Testing Efficiency: Testing efficiency = 1 – ((defects found in acceptance)/ total number of testing defects) x 100. Metrics are derived and help us in sense making and planning the next course of action. We can classify the most commonly used metrics into the following groups: 1. They are used for making strategic decisions. We can classify the most commonly used metrics into the following groups: These are metrics that pertain to Process Quality. Size Variance: Difference between the estimated size of the project and the actual size of the project (normally in KLOC or FP). The only way to know how/where to improve any process is to. Requirement Stability Index: Provides visibility to the magnitude and impact of requirements changes. I am fun Loving Person and Believes in Spreading the Knowledge among people. As software is a collection of programs and data files that are designed to perform some operations and on the other hand, program is a set of instructions that perform only a specific task that it is made for. Product metrics are related to software features only. Schedule Variance: Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion is known as Schedule Variance. Measure specific attributes of the process. Ans: Following are the attributes of a software metrics-. 2. Pages of documentation per KLOC. Software Testing Metrics are the quantitative measures used to estimate the progress, quality, productivity and health of the software testing process. Software Metrics Product vs. process Most metrics are indirect: No way to measure property directly or Final product does not yet exist For predicting, need a model of relationship of predicted variable with other measurable variables. Product metrics are software product measures at any stage of their development, from requirements to established systems. These are metrics that pertain to Product Quality. Product metrics help software engineer to detect and correct potential problems before they result in catastroph… MTTFis consistent for systems with large transactions. Process metrics are used to make strategic decisions about how to complete the common process framework activities. Consistent in its use of units and dimensions. Learn for free! Product metrics fall into two classes: Dynamic metrics that are collected by … 8) Explain Normalization approaches. They are used to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of various processes. This is possible by collecting quality and productivity data and then analyzing and comparing these data with past averages in order to know whether quality improvements have occurred. Cannot easily accommodate non-procedural languages. 6. Process Metrics: Process metrics pay particular attention on enhancing the long term process of the team or organisation. The goal of tracking and analyzing software metrics is to determine the quality of the current product or process, improve that quality and predict the quality once the software development project is complete.
2020 difference between process metrics and product metrics in software engineering