Executives are often frustrated that, in spite of accommodating these new techniques, many of their IT projects still go over budget or fail. Software projects are often delayed, exceed their budgets and in some cases fail altogether. What can be done during the maintenance phase is to fix the defects as soon as possible and with excellent fix quality. It can be classified into three categories: product metrics, process metrics, and project metrics. The important thing to remember is that effective performance metrics are ones that can easily be compared to established benchmarks or objectives. Can project predictability be improved? The cohort concept is important because if it is operationalized as a cross-sectional measure, then invalid metrics will result. Using them them will also help to reduce some common software project risks. The main purpose of software maintenance is to modify and update software application after delivery to correct faults and to improve performance. Using it in the format of a trend chart, this metric can provide meaningful information for managing the maintenance process. These maintenance metrics are not too hard to collect if you have maintenance management software. Of course, the goal is always to strive for a BMI larger than 100. In this chapter from his book on software quality engineering, Stephen H. Kan discusses several metrics in each of three groups of software quality metrics: product quality, in-process quality, and maintenance quality. For example, we have seen practices in which at the end of each week the number of problems in backlog (problems still to be fixed) and the number of delinquent open problems were counted, and the percent delinquent problems was calculated. In Accelerate, the authors state “Therefore, we settled on deployment frequency as a proxy for batch size since it is easy to measure and typically has low variability. A defective fix can be recorded in two ways: Record it in the month it was discovered or record it in the month the fix was delivered. According to Vanson Bourne research, Average downtime costs 240.000 US dollars per hour according to decision makers in Field service and Service management. By comparing them to previously achieved goals, the metrics are given context, which allows individuals to better understand the progress they’ve achieved. That’s why all maintenance metrics flow from these components. The goal of tracking and analyzing software metrics is to determine the quality of the current product or process, improve that quality and predict the quality once the software development project is complete. It is important to note that the metric of percent delinquent fixes is a cohort metric. Three Useful Maintenance Metrics 1. Capability Enhancement Understanding each helps connect the dots between actions and impact, so you can make informed decisions and upgrade your facility. The mean (or median) response time metric is a central tendency measure. Identify areas of improvement 3. I will show that just four metrics is all that is needed to get on top of this problem. This cross-sectional counting approach neglects problems that were processed and closed before the end of the week, and will create a high delinquent index when significant improvement (reduction in problems backlog) is made. Product metrics describe the characteristics of the product such as size, complexity, design features, performance, and quality level. Therefore, these two de facto metrics, although important, do not reflect the quality of software maintenance. Therefore, these two de facto metrics, although important, do not reflect the quality of software maintenance. Can this be achieved without diving into the technical details? Measuring Downtime as a KPI, can help Maintenance Department t… An Example of Module Design Metrics in Practice, 1 Definition and Measurements of System Availability, Reliability, Availability, and Defect Rate, Collecting Customer Outage Data for Quality Improvement, Software Process Maturity Assessment and Software Project Assessment, A Proposed Software Project Assessment Method, Staged versus Continuous Debating Religion, Keep It Simple or Face Decomplexification, Measuring the Value of Process Improvement, Celebrate the Journey, Not Just the Destination, Measuring Process Improvements at Activity Levels, Getting Started with a Software Metrics Program, Statistical Process Control in Software Development, Hack 60. For those wanting to shortcut and accelerate the process, a CFP estimate can be generated automatically from requirements by using ScopeMaster. There is even a certification exam to ensure that you measure correctly. Firstly, it is important to use valid metrics. If the dealer promises noon but does not get the car ready until 2 o'clock, John will not be a satisfied customer. On a more granular level, software development managers are trying to: 1. Such actions, although still not able to improve the defect rate of the product, can improve customer satisfaction to a large extent. However, the number of defect or problem arrivals is largely determined by the development process before the maintenance phase. The quality goal for the maintenance process, of course, is zero defective fixes without delinquency. For success you will need to base decisions on valid, consistent, universal, ungameable metrics; and four is all you need. Qualitative metrics are incredibly helpful so long as company leaders have developed an understanding and intuition about the mechanics of using software to innovate. For many software development organizations, guidelines are established on the time limit within which the fixes should be available for the reported defects. Fix backlog and backlog management index 2. Types of Software Metrics Formal code metrics —Such as Lines of Code (LOC), code complexity, Instruction Path Length, etc. A fix is defective if it did not fix the reported problem, or if it fixed the original problem but injected a new defect. A more sensitive metric is the percentage of delinquent fixes. The latest release of the product was available to customers in the month for the first data points on the two charts. By “deployment” we mean a software deployment to production or to an app store.” The reason the frequency of production deployments matters is because it tells you how often you’re delivering something of value to end users and/or getting feedback from users. You may also find that you have one response time goal for work orders on critical pieces of equipment, and one goal for less critical pieces of equipment. When you use UpKeep or another free CMMS software to help track your maintenance KPIs over time, tracking over time can be as easy as 1,2,3. It is related to both the rate of defect arrivals and the rate at which fixes for reported problems become available. What will it cost? If the index is below 1, that means the team is fixing problems faster than the problem arrival rate. If there are too many bugs, we can’t release the software, so we must keep track of quality throughout. Such cases could occur for less severe problems for which customers may be satisfied with the circumvention and didn't demand a fix. Create a List of Personalized Parameters, Cisco IOS in a Nutshell (In a Nutshell (OReilly)), Managing Enterprise Systems with the Windows Script Host, Introduction to 80x86 Assembly Language and Computer Architecture, Microsoft Visual Basic .NET Programmers Cookbook (Pro-Developer). As a ratio of number of closed, or solved , problems to number of problem arrivals during the month, if BMI is larger than 100, it means the backlog is reduced. In Chapter 5 we provide more discussions and examples. I will introduce just four valid metrics that can provide a common language for executives to use in the context of software investment decisions and that will help achieve greater project success. However, focusing on these metrics alone obscures important information and blinds companies to potential earnings opportunities. Figure 4.5 is a trend chart by month of the numbers of opened and closed problems of a software product, and a pseudo-control chart for the BMI. For the successful software development and maintenance, Measurement is a key technology. Tracking and collecting evidence of how your actions are performing to know if you’re archiving the established goals, is crucial when implementing DevRel programs. Another metric to manage the backlog of open , unresolved , problems is the backlog management index (BMI). For example, one CEO at a large retailer began asking product teams what they’d learned in recent releases in addition to checking the status and budget of projects. Metrics play a important role, when it comes to measuring a process from various dimensions, assessing it and target improvements. Quality and reliability of software. When development of a software product is complete and it is released to the market, it enters the maintenance phase of its life cycle. You should also use them even when everything is going well. A BMI trend chart or control chart should be examined together with trend charts of defect arrivals, defects fixed (closed), and the number of problems in the backlog. The difference between the two dates is the latent period of the defective fix. Opened Problems, Closed Problems, and Backlog Management Index by Month. These metrics can be computed for different stages of SDLC. Check out our introduction to CFP. Adaptive — changes to your software that keep it compatible with the changing software environments such as hardware and operating … Measuring size is possible. Manage workloads 4. For mission-critical software, defective fixes are detrimental to customer satisfaction. Despite not being "real" control charts in statistical terms, however, we found pseudo-control charts such as the BMI chart quite useful in software quality management. Can the long bug-fixing periods be avoided? https:///www.scopemaster.com, ScopeMaster ® Copyright 2017 - 2020 | All Rights Reserved | ScopeMaster Ltd |. Metrics in contracts 2016 k 13. Figure 4.6 shows the real-time delivery index diagrammatically. Increase return on investment (ROI) 2. Intuitively, most everyone understands that there is value in maintaining assets in a reliable working state. These four metrics will go a long way to helping IT managers ensure that their projects are delivered successfully , regardless of techniques they adopt (agile, scaled agile, kanban, waterfall) . From a driver regularly changing the oil in his car to the hydraulic technician ensuring the system pressure is consistent on a 3,500-ton metal-forming press, there are innumerable tasks being performed worldwide that keep plant operations going and assets performing. Defects fixed vs defects found each month/sprint. SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE METRICS AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR DERIVING IMPROVEMENT IN SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE PROJECT: AN EMPIRICAL ... quality of the product during this phase. The mean BMI was 102.9%, indicating that the capability of the fix process was functioning normally. In this episode, I discuss four software and operations metrics to start with when you’re doing your digital transformation, app modernization stuff: deployment frequency, lead time for changes, time to restore service, and change failure rate. Therefore, these two de facto metrics, although important, do not reflect the quality of software maintenance. They are hard to get right. DEVELOPING A BASIS OF MAINTENANCE PERFORMANCE METRICS As explained in previous section it is necessary to identify the A great way to do that is by calling our software advisors at (844) 687-6771 for a free consultation to help you narrow down your choices based on your specific needs. Metric #3: Defects (found and created) per CFP. There are three main categories of maintenance metrics — asset, operational, and inventory metrics. Downtime is incredibly costly for any company which has assets. The two important software characteristics are: 1. If the number of defects, and therefore the fixes, is large, then the small value of the percentage metric will show an optimistic picture, although the number of defective fixes could be quite large. In this episode, I discuss four software and operations metrics to start with when you’re doing your digital transformation, app modernization stuff: deployment frequency, lead time for changes, time . So the first metric is: Metric #1: Functional Size in COSMIC Function Points (CFP). Yet the whole boardroom needs to be able to have a conversation about software investment that they can all understand. It is meaningful to keep track of the latency data and other information such as the number of customers who were affected by the defective fix. Software Maintenance Types . 2. You learn more by practice or practically as compared to the only theoretical knowledge or by book reading. 2. maintenance and such type of metrics is a great challenge for the researcher. Examples of Important KPI Metrics to Benchmark & Track. 4.3.2 Fix Response Time and Fix Responsiveness. This metric, therefore, should be a straight count of the number of defective fixes. The following metrics are therefore very important: Fix backlog and backlog management index; Fix response time and fix responsiveness; Percent delinquent fixes; Fix quality; 4.3.1 Fix Backlog and Backlog Management Index. You will get a quick measure of your maintenance program as well as identify early actions to take if the metrics are changing in a negative way. Response tim… In other words, it contains the total number of problems to be processed for the week ”the total workload. Process quality Metrics: Process metrics can be used to measure and enhance process of software development, maintenance and testing. How big is your project really? Software metrics can be classified into two types as follows: 1. Can there be a better way? Software evolution program evolution dynamics software maintenance complexity and process metrics evolution processes 1. The document then identifies typical business process and results metrics that can be used as key performance indicators for the maintenance function. Many of these new techniques increase the mystique around software development that in turn, fuels an unregulated industry of “agile coaches”. Fix quality If BMI is less than 100, then the backlog increased. How do we verify quality as we develop? All BMI values were within the upper (UCL) and lower (LCL) control limits ”the backlog management process was in control. There are many other important factors that influence these metrics such as: working conditions, tools, executive support, complexity, team trust, collaboration and staff competency. In most cases it is also useful to track some related measures, such as: At the core of this recommendation is size measurement in COSMIC function points. For example, John takes his car to the dealer for servicing in the early morning and needs it back by noon. If there are data points with extreme values, medians should be used instead of mean. The result is a tree structure of maintainability metrics which can be used for purposes of evaluating the relative maintainability of the software system. For the critical situations in which the customers' businesses are at risk due to defects in the software product, software developers or the software change teams work around the clock to fix the problems. UpKeep, in particular, makes the process intuitive with its easy-to-use graphic interface. If we know the size and monitor the output delivered per month (or per sprint) , we can predict if we are on track. These four metrics will go a long way to helping IT managers ensure that their projects are delivered successfully , regardless of techniques they adopt (agile, scaled agile, kanban, waterfall) . There is an argument against using percentage for defective fixes. Applying the Seven Basic Quality Tools in Software Development, Exponential Distribution and Reliability Growth Models, Metrics and Lessons Learned for Object-Oriented Projects, Measuring and Analyzing Customer Satisfaction, Conducting In-Process Quality Assessments, Dos and Donts of Software Process Improvement, Using Function Point Metrics to Measure Software Process Improvements, Metrics and Models in Software Quality Engineering (2nd Edition), The .NET Developers Guide to Directory Services Programming, Practical Software Metrics for Project Management and Process Improvement, Managing the Testing Process: Practical Tools and Techniques for Managing Hardware and Software Testing, Applied Software Measurement: Global Analysis of Productivity and Quality, The Certified Software Quality Engineer Handbook, Introducing Microsoft Office InfoPath 2003 (Bpg-Other), Process Maturity Framework and Quality Standards, Definition, Operational Definition, and Measurement, A Closer Look at Defect Removal Effectiveness, Defect Removal Effectiveness and Quality Planning, Cost Effectiveness of Phase Defect Removal, Defect Removal Effectiveness and Process Maturity Level, Estimating the Distribution of Total Defects over Time, The PTR Arrival and Backlog Projection Model, In-Process Metrics and Quality Management, Possible Metrics for Acceptance Testing to Evaluate Vendor-Developed Software. ( Note: We call the BMI chart a pseudo-control chart because the BMI data are autocorrelated and therefore the assumption of independence for control charts is violated. However, there is a subtle difference between fix responsiveness and short fix response time. Percent delinquent fixes 4. VMware Tanzu A portfolio of products and services … If the dealer leaves a timely phone message on her answering machine at work saying that her van is ready to pick up, Julia will be even more satisfied. More and more software companies are realizing how important is to have a solid developer community and start hiring DevRel roles for their core business. Software development metrics are quantitative measurements of a software product or project, which can help management understand software performance, quality, or the productivity and efficiency of software teams. For less severe defects for which circumventions are available, the required fix response time is more relaxed . You need a consistent measure before you start (for estimation), during the project (for control) and afterwards (for benchmarking). From the customer's perspective, it is bad enough to encounter functional defects when running a business on the software. It is important to make corrective changes regularly. With enough data points, the techniques of control charting can be used to calculate the backlog management capability of the maintenance process. Software metrics is a standard of measure that contains many activities which involve some degree of measurement. In maintenance management, bug fixing comes at priority to run the software seamlessly. The leading indicator comprises from metrics like the Estimated vs actual performance and PM Compliance, while the lagging indicatorare reflected in maintenance metrics like the Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), Overall Equipment Effectiveness OEE and Mean time between failure (MTBF). Size and complexity of software. I’ve spent 30 years in IT, looked at hundreds of software projects and learned much from other experts. Assuming the time unit is 1 week, we propose that the percent delinquent of problems in the active backlog be used. Usually the criteria are set in accordance with the severity of the problems. I’ve concluded that most organisations could enjoy more success by using just four straightforward metrics. What are the root causes of software bugs, Computing DevOps Award for best Cloud Product 2020, Four Metrics for Successful Software Projects. Lagging indicators follow events, and include maintenance metrics such as Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time to Repair (MTTR). This is not all there is to managing software. For each of these attributes the authors show a metric definition consistent with the published definitions of the software characteristic being measured. Fix backlog is a workload statement for software maintenance. This type of fix responsiveness process is indeed being practiced by automobile dealers who focus on customer satisfaction. Its denominator refers to a cohort of problems (problems closed in a given period of time, or problems to be processed in a given week). Reduce overtime 5. They are used to measur… The issues can be occurred in hardware, operating systems or any part of software. In this writer's knowledge, the systems software development of Hewlett-Packard (HP) in California and IBM Rochester's systems software development have fix responsiveness processes similar to the process just illustrated by the automobile examples. The metric of percent defective fixes is simply the percentage of all fixes in a time interval (e.g., 1 month) that are defective. Presentation oncomponent based software engineering presented chaitanya pratap singh. A variation of the problem backlog index is the ratio of number of opened problems (problem backlog) to number of problem arrivals during the month. Problems that are still open must be factored into the calculation for a real-time metric. How quickly are we creating the software? While performing maintenance, you can make four types of changes to your software: Corrective — detection and correction of faults. How many technical staff will we need? Here is a re-cap of those four key metrics for managing successful software projects: Colin Hammond is a consultant in project assurance and creator of the world’s first analyser of software requirements for automated quality assurance and estimation. This must be done without hurting rest of the functionalities of existing software. This process contains search out for errors in code and correct them. 1. I’ll show you that by using these four metrics you can improve the basis of project decisions, raise the transparency of project progress and reduce project failure rates. Therefore, the problem may remain open for a long time in the tracking report. Not much can be done to alter the quality of the product during this phase. He also describes the key metrics used by several major software developers and discusses software metrics data collection. With just these four metrics you can get a grip on scope, resources, schedule and quality. Software testing metrics and breakdown of topics for the software maintenance ka. How Do You Know Your Product Is Good Enough to Ship? Reduce costsThese goals ca… Defect potentials per CFP and tests per CFP. Qualitative metrics are incredibly helpful so long as company leaders have developed an understanding and intuition about the mechanics of using software to innovate. The following metrics are therefore very important: 4.3.1 Fix Backlog and Backlog Management Index. Counting CFPs is a skill that can be learned in a matter of days. Here are four metrics … Common maintenance metrics Everything in maintenance can be divided into two areas: people and assets. For any type of software (business application, enhancements, maintenance, system software, embedded systems) focussing on just these four metrics really works: Size is not everything that matters on software, but it is the most significant factor on software projects. 4. Also, I discuss my thoughts on TRRS vs. TRS cables, and USB-C … Fix response time and fix responsiveness 3. There are many inappropriate metrics that are frequently promoted such as counting lines of code, story points, and t-shirt sizes, but these usually lead to poor management decisions because the metrics on which the decisions are being based, are unreliable. The first is a customer measure, the second is a process measure. This explains the rise and fall of the problem arrivals and closures. In consequence a similar attempt has been made to develop maintenance performance metrics in the next section. The history of software engineering and software metrics is almost from the same era. Why Tanzu; Products. The difference between a successful organization and a s… Tracking, analyzing and optimizing the performance of these two elements is the key to maintenance success. The fix response time metric is usually calculated as follows for all problems as well as by severity level: Mean time of all problems from open to closed. A constant stream of new techniques and methodologies keeps appearing that promise to solve the problems. If the index is higher than 1, that means the team is losing ground in their problem-fixing capability relative to problem arrivals. Having a good Maintenance Strategy in place, can reduce downtime by more than 30%! And yet, software project problems don’t seem to go away. Fix backlog is a workload statement for software maintenance. The number of delinquent problems is checked at the end of the week. Nevertheless, by focusing on just these four metrics, technical and non-technical leaders in any organisation can increase their project success rate.
2020 four important metrics for software maintenance